Paper is commonly known as the main media for writing, printing, and painting. Paper itself has a meaning as a thin material, which is produced by compression of fibers derived from the pulp. The fiber used is usually a natural material and contains cellulose and hemicellulose. In general, what people know is the material for making paper is wood. But, do you know what type of wood is used? To understand more about paper chemicals and materials, let’s consider the following explanation.

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Paper Chemicals and Materials

Paper Chemicals and Materials
Many large paper manufacturing plants use wood as the main raw material in making paper. Because the material is easily obtained and has criteria that are considered appropriate in making paper. Papermaking material itself consists of three components, namely raw materials, auxiliary materials, and supplementary materials. Here are some components in making paper to get good results, namely:

1. Raw materials
The basic ingredients for making pulp and paper are cellulose fibers. Cellulose fiber itself can be obtained from various plants, both agricultural products (such as sugar cane, bamboo, straw) or forest products (wood). The wood itself is divided into two classes, namely wide leaf wood (hardwood) and needle wood (softwood). Wide leaf wood (hardwood) which is usually used in papermaking is the acacia tree and teak tree. Whereas needle wood (softwood), which is pine wood which has a longer length and roughness, is used to give strength to the paper. Hardwood is more compact and smoother, resulting in a smoother paper surface. Hardwood is also easier to bleach so that the color is brighter because it has less lignin.

Wood Chemical Components :

Wood chemicals
Source :
  • Cellulose
    Cellulose itself is the largest chemical component of wood. The cellulose content in wide leaf wood is between 44-60% and needle wood is between 49-58%. The high cellulose content in the base material is very preferred in the manufacture of pulp and paper. Because it functions to form interwoven fiber with hydrogen bonds between hydroxy cellulose.
  • Hemicellulose
    Hemicellulose is another polysaccharide found in wood and classified as an organic compound.
  • Lignin
    Lignin is the biggest chemical component in the wood after cellulose which is a complex and non-carbohydrate compound.
  • Extractive Substances
    It is a substance that is deposited in the cell cavity and consists of chemicals such as oil, resins, waxes, fats, dyes, and other organic acids.

2.uxiliary materials

The paper auxiliary materials include:

  • Water needed as a washing agent and solvent. Water is also very necessary in making paper.
  • Bleach material is needed to make the paper whiter because paper raw materials do not have color. The bleach ingredients include:

Chlorine (Cl2) and chlorine dioxide (C1O2)
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Hydrogen Peroxide
Sodium Peroxide
Sodium Bisulfate
Potassium Bisulfate

  • Wood crushing materials are needed so that the process of crushing wood is not mechanical but chemical reactions. These materials include:

Sulfuric Acid Alkali
Sodium Hydroxide
Coloring agent (required when making colored paper)

3. Supplementary material

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There are two kinds of supplementary materials in the papermaking process, namely:

  • Fillers, materials used to cover fine holes on the surface of the paper. So that a smooth and even paper can be obtained. These ingredients include:

Diatomaceous land
Magnesite lime

  • Adhesives, materials used to glue wood or cellulose to be stronger and stronger.

These ingredients include:
Arbus adhesive
Animal adhesive
Starch adhesive

That’s a little explanation about the paper chemicals and material used in making paper.